Wine making is a really old and traditional and people have been making wine around the world for hundreds of years. There are many different parts to wine making though and there are certain steps taken according to the sort of wine you are making. Anyone can do wine making and there are lots of resources obtainable for those beginner wine makers.
The nitty-gritty of wine making are all the same. You are converting the sugar that is in the grape juice into alcohol and carbon dioxide. This conversion is conducted by yeast and a byproduct of the production of alcohol are different aroma and flavor chemicals. So the different yeast strain you opt for will create varied smells in addition to making wine.
White wine making is incredibly similar to red wine making although there is one chief dissimilarity. For white wine the juice is inoculated with yeast and then the juice is fermented into wine. The grapes skins, seeds and stems are all separated from the juice so only the juice is being made into wine. For red wine the skins of the grape are left in the juice, the yeast is added and the juice is fermented into wine. Because the grape skins are in the juice the alcohol that is being produced extracts the color from the grape skins producing a colored, or red, wine.
There is also an extra step for wine making when making sparkling wine. Instead of one fermentation, sparkling wine uses two fermentations. The most famous example of sparkling wine is champagne but there are many different sorts of sparkling wine.
To make wine sparkling you take still wine, so juice that has already been fermented to wine. Then a little amount of juice or sugar and yeast is added and the bottle is corked so the CO2 is trapped in the bottle, hence the sparkling.
Fortified wines and late harvest or sweet wines can be produced using two styles of wine making. With fortified wines the fermentation is not finished so that there is still some sugar left in the wine. The fermentation is stopped by adding liquor or spirits to the fermentation which kills the yeast.
Late harvest wines are made of very ripe grapes so that they are shriveled and like raisins. This creates juice that has high sugar. The fermentation is stopped before it is done by chilling. In this way the alcohol content is low and the wine is incredibly sweet. There is much more to wine making but what is described above are the chief differences between the styles of winemaking you can use.
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