Wine making is a extremely old and traditional and people have been wine making around the world for hundreds of years. There are numerous different parts to wine making though and there are particular steps taken according to the sort of wine you are making. Anyone can do wine making and there are loads of resources available for those beginner wine makers.
The essentials of wine making are all the same. You are converting the sugar that is in the grape juice into alcohol and carbon dioxide. This conversion is conducted by yeast and a byproduct of the production of alcohol are different aroma and flavor chemicals. So the different yeast strain you choose will create varied aromas in addition to making wine.
When making white wine and red wine there is one large difference. This has to do with the incorporation of the grape skins into the fermentation for red wine. White wine can be produced from white grapes or red grapes but only the juice is used for fermentation. With red wine the skins are left into the juice and as the alcohol concentration increases the color is extracted from the grape skin and causes the wine to be a dark red color.
Sparkling wine features an additional step. The wine is fermented like white wine. Once this still wine is produced there is a second fermentation.
To make wine sparkling you take still wine, so juice that has already been fermented to wine. Then a small quantity of juice or sugar and yeast is added and the bottle is corked so the CO2 is trapped in the bottle, hence the sparkling.
There are sweeter wines including fortified wines and dessert wines that also have their own individual step. The wine maker does not allow the yeast to finish fermentation so there is still sugar left in the wine and it tastes sweet. Examples of these sweet wines are fortified wines, late harvest wines and ice wines.
The huge difference in these wines is how the yeast is stopped. For fortified wines a spirit is added to the wine and that much alcohol will immediately kill the yeast. With dessert style wines the wine is quickly chilled and the yeast will stop growing. Yeast needs a special, warm temperature to grow and a too cold environment will stop the fermentation.
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